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"Philip of Macedon united the Greek city-states"
Greek claim 3

 

Let us allow the ancients Greeks, themselves, to express their feelings on this matter which modern Greeks today claim:

[1] Alexander asks a women, who was being taken captive, who she was, she replied: 'I am the sister of Theogenes who commanded our army against your father, Philip, and fell at Chaeronea fighting for the liberty of Greece.'

[If Philip and Alexander were "uniting" the Greek states, then, why were the Greeks fighting for the liberty of Greece?]

[2] The epitaph at CHAERONEA I do recall reading that the Thebans and the Athenians were fighting together, for the holy soil of Hellas on August the 4th, 338 at the sleepy village of Chaeronea. The fellow Hellenes, the Athenians and the Thebans, against the barbarians from the north- the Macedonians. Let us examine the following epitaph composed for the common grave of the fallen Hellenes:

"Time, whose overseeing eye records all human actions, Bear word to mankind what fate was suffered, how Striving to safeguard the holy soil of Hellas Upon Boeotia's plain we died."

[If these Macedonians, were "Hellenes", (as the modern Greeks claim today), then why they were not fighting to safeguard the holy soil of Hellas? Weren't they of the same Hellenic stock? It is clear they were not, and they fought against Greece]

[3] "When Archelaus attacked Thessalian Larisa, Thrasymachus wrote what was to become a model oration On Behalf of the Larisians. Only one sentence happens to survive:

'Shall we be slaves to Archelaus, we, being Greeks, to a barbarian?'.

[Ancient Greeks stereotyped and called barbarian all people who were non-Greek, therefore, the Macedonian king Archelaus is not a Greek, but a foreigner who enslaved the Greeks]

[4] Plutarch "The Age of Alexander" [Modern day Greeks would like to dispatch off Demosthenes castigations of Philip II as political rhetoric, and yet Demosthenes was twice appointed to lead the war effort of Athens against Macedonia. He, Demosthenes, said of Philip that Philip was not Greek, nor related to Greeks but comes from Macedonia where a person could not even buy a decent slave.

"Soon after his death the people of Athens paid him fitting honours by erecting his statue in bronze, and by decreeing that the eldest member of his family should be maintained in the prytaneum at the public expense. On the base of his statue was carved his famous inscription: 'If only your strength had been equal, Demosthenes, to your wisdom Never would Greece have been ruled by a Macedonian Ares'". [p.216]

[5] Plutarch "The Age of Alexander" The news of Philip's death reached Athens. Demosthenes appeared in public dressed in magnificent attire and wearing a garland on his head, although his daughter had died only six days before. Aeshines states: "For my part I cannot say that the Athenians did themselves any credit in puting on garlands and offering sucrifices to celebrate the death of a king who, when he was the conqueror and they the conquered had treated them with such tolerance and humanity. Far apart from provoking the anger of the gods, it was a contemptible action to make Philip a citizen of Athens and pay him honours while he was alive, and then, as soon as he has fallen by another's hand, to be besides themselves with joy, tremple on his body, and sing paeans of victory, as though they themselves have accomplished some great feat of arms." [p.207]

[6] [Book II - Battle of Issus, in Arrian's "The Campaigns of Alexander"

"Darius' Greeks fought to thrust the Macedonians back into the water and save the day for their left wing, already in retreat, while the Macedonians, in their turn, with Alexander's triumph plain before their eyes, were determined to equal his success and not forfeit the proud title of invincible, hitherto universally bestowed upon them. The fight was further embittered by the old racial rivalry of Greek and Macedonian." [p.119]

[7] Quintus Rufus "The History of Alexander"

"Alexander meanwhile dealt swiftly with the unrest in Greece - not only did the Athenians rejoice at Philip’s death, but the Aetolians, the Thebans, as well as Spartans and the Peloponnesians, were ready to throw off the Macedonian yoke. (Diod. 17.3.3-5) - and he marched south into Thessaly, demanding the loyalty of its people in the name of their common ancestors, Achilles (Justin 11.3.1-2; cf. Diod. 17.4.1). And with speed and diplomacy Alexander brought the Thebans and Athenians into submission (Diod. 17.4.4-6)

[When one unifies, there is no "yoke" to be thrown off.]

[8] Quintus Rufus "The History of Alexander" "Alexander also referred to his father, Philip, conqueror of Athenians, and recalled to their minds the recent conquest of Boeotia and the annihilation of its best known city." [p.41]

Philip, a conqueror of Athenians, recent conquest of Boeotia. It would be redundant if I re-emphasize the fact that there was a "conquest" and not an "unification" of the Greek city-states by Philip from Macedon. The word is a "conqueror", and not a "unifier", as modern Greeks would like to believe.

[9] Quintus Rufus "The History of Alexander"

"Men! If you consider the scale of our achievements, your longing for peace and your weariness of brilliant campaigns are not at all surprising. Let me pass over the Illyrians, the Triballians, Boeotia, Thrace, Sparta, the Aecheans, the Peloponnese - all of them subdued under my direct leadership or by campaigns conducteded under my orders of instructions". [When one "unites", one does not force submission of the conquered people. Boeotia, Thrace, Sparta, the Aecheans, the Peloponnese are all Greeks]

[10] Quintus Rufus "The History of Alexander"

"Starting with Macedonia, I now have power over Greece; I have brought Thrace and the Illyrians under my control; rule the Triballi and the Maedi. I have Asia in my possession from the Hellespont to the Red Sea." [p.277]

[11] Arrian "The Compaigns of Alexander" Alexander continues to speak to his Macedonians and allies:

"Come, then; add the rest of Asia to what you already possess - a small addition to the great sum of your conquests. What great or noble work could we ourselves have achieved had we thought it enough living at ease in Macedon, merely to guard our homes, excepting no burden beyond checking the encroachment of the Thracians on our borders, or the Illyrians and Triballians, or perhaps such Greeks as might prove a menace to our comfort." [p.294]

[12] This one is taken from A.B.Bosworth's "Alexander and the East", p.6-8.

"The coins seem to emphasize the fighting potential of Porus' army, and there must be conscious propaganda at work. Alexander was underscoring his victory. In a manner unique in ancient coinage he was sending message to people who could never hope to witness an Indian army in the flesh. These were the outlandish and formidable forces which he had faced in battle and crushed. Five years might have elapsed since the Persian grand army was humiliated at Guagamela, but his army had lost none of its frightful efficiency. The victory over Porus was the proof, and the coinage ensured that its implications were not lost. In the context of the troubles in Greece which followed the Exiles' Decree it would constitute a blunt warning. Beware the consequences of revolt. The army which crushed Porus will easily crush you."

[The Macedonian army would crush a revolt in Greece against the Macedonian rule there]

[13] From F.W. "Walbank "The Hellenistic World", p.91-2

We find the following references used to describe Macedonia and Greece: "In a speech delivered at Sparta in 210 the Aetolian Claeneas, appealing for Spartan collaboration in the Roman alliance against Macedonia, is said by Polybius (ix, 28, ) to have opened with the truism:

'Men of Sparta, I am quite certain that nobody would venture to deny that the slavery of Greece owes its origin to the kings of Macedonia'.....He goes on to describe in detail the outrages which Philip, Alexander and their third-century successors have inflicted on the Greek cities."

[Common logic dictates that we ask the following questions: If Philip united the Greek states, how can Greece feels enslaved? If king Philip was uniting the Greek states, why would he inflict outrages on his own cities? It is more then obvious that the Macedonian conquered Greece and kept it enslaved.]

[14] F.W.Walbank "The Hellenistic World" [p.94]

"The Greeks themselves were under no illusions about the significance of this garrisons. In winter 198/7 Greek envoys sent to Rome in the hope of securing (Macedonian king) PhilipV's complete expulsion from Greece", pleads:

"all took pains to impress on the Senate that so long as Chalcis, Corinth, and Demetrias remained in Macedonian hands, it was impossible for the Greeks to have any thought of liberty. For Philip V's expression when he pronounced these places to be the 'fetters of Greece' was, they said, only too true, since neither could Peloponnesians breathe freely with the royal garrison established at Corinth, nor could the Locrians, Boeotians, and Phocians, feel any confidence while Philip occupied Chalcis and the rest of Euboea, nor again could the Thessalians or Magnesians ever enjoy liberty while the Macedonians held Demetrias." (Polybius, xviii, II,4-7).

[Points of interest: Thoughts of Greek liberty, while the Macedonian had Philip occupied Greece.]

[15] The Ancient World Readings in Social and Cultural History By Brendan Nagle Stemley M. Burstein

"Equally important, fourth century B.C. Greece found itself once again vulnerable to foreign threat, not this time from Persia in the east but from the newly unified and invigorated kingdom of Macedon in the north."

[16] Polybius, The Rise of the Roman Empire Book XVIII, 2

"Dionysodorus, the representative of King Attalus of Pergamum, was the first to rise. He declared that Philip must surrender those of the King's ships he had taken at the bottle of Chios, together with the crews captured in them, and must restore to their original condition both the temple of Aphrodite and the sanctuary of Athena Nicephorus near Pergamum which he had destroyed." [p.495]

[Points of interest: Kings do not destroy their own religious temples. If ancient Macedonians were Greeks they would definitely not have destroyed their own religious monuments and temples. If ancient Macedonians had same religion as the ancient Greeks, they, the ancient Macedonians, would have shown much different treatment of their own temples. The uncomfortable fact still persist: ancient Macedonians were not Greeks, did not believe in same Gods as the Greeks, and most certainly, they did not unite the Greek city-states, but simply ruled over them, as in subjugation, as in having a master.]

[17] Polybius, book XVIII, 45

[This passage illustrates how Aetolians saw the Roman Senate proclamation/decree concerning the peace settlement with Philip] "This was surely a clear indication that the Romans were taking over from Philip the so called "fetters of Greece", and that the Greeks were not being given their freedom, but merely a change of masters."

[The summation is clear: Greeks were under Macedonian yoke imposed by the Macedonian masters. When one speaks of "being united" there is no need for one of the parties to seek freedom and the mere exchange of masters, needs no further elaboration.]

The uncomfortable fact still persists: The ancient Macedonians conquered Greece. It was a land won by the Macedonian spear. It was a subjugation by force of arms and the ancient Greeks were quite aware that.

 

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