Why Macedonia and the Macedonians had Never been Greek?
ancient Macedonians were a distinct nation, separate from their
neighbors, the ancient Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians.
The ancient Greek and Roman historians tell us that the Macedonians
spoke a separate Macedonian language and had their own customs,
culture, and traditions.
discoveries confirm that the material culture of the
Macedonians also defer greatly from all of their neighbors, and it is
by far more superior in artistry (gold, paintings, weapons, mosaics)
then anything found in contemporary Greece, Illyria, and Thrace.
The texts of the ancient writers distinguish the Macedonians from
the ancient Greeks, just like they distinguish the Romans and the
Carthaginians. Yet, like the other non-Greeks, Carthaginians,
Romans, Illyrians, and Thracians, the Macedonian high society also
used the Greek language along with Macedonian. Greek was
spoken by the nobility of many different ancient nations, just like
French was spoken in the 19th century (at the German and
Russian courts for example). Unfortunately there are only about 150
glosses that have survived of the ancient Macedonian language (most
of them with no relation whatsoever with ancient Greek), and like
ancient Carthaginian, Illyrian, and Thracian, it can not be
reconstructed. There is no doubt nevertheless that the Illyrains,
Thracians, and Macedonians were non-Greeks, or in the words of the
ancient Greeks, "barbarians", which literally means people
who spoke other non-Greek languages.
Macedonia became a world power when the
Macedonian king Philip II conquered Thrace,
greater part of Illyria, and the whole of Greece (except Sparta).
At the battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, the Macedonian army destroyed the
united Greek army, and put an end to Greek freedom and ancient Greek
history. To secure the Macedonian conquest, Macedonian garrisons
were established in the Greek cities, just like they were
established in Thrace and Illyria.
the Great (336-323 BC), Philip II's son, took the
Macedonian armies even further and conquered the Persian Empire,
making Macedonia the largest and most powerful nation in the world
for centuries to come. In his army next to the Macedonians, he
utilized also troops from the Balkan nations that his father Philip
II had conquered - Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians. The Greeks in
the Macedonian army, however, were commanded by Macedonians, their
contribution in the conquest was insignificant and miniscule, and
modern historiography calls them nothing but Macedonian
"hostages" who would ensure a good behavior of their
friends and families back in Greece (Peter Green, Urlich Wilcken, Ernst Badian, Eugene
Borza, A.B. Bosworth). Aware that the Greeks
despised the Macedonians, Alexander left massive Macedonian
occupation troops in their country before heading for the conquest
of Persia, although he knew that he would need as many as possible
Macedonians for the dangerous campaign ahead. He however rid
himself of the Greeks in his army the first chance he got, after
burning the Persian capital Persepolis, and learning that the last
Greek state Sparta was defeated by the Macedonian troops he left to
watch rebellious Greece.
all, the Greeks never stopped fighting the Macedonians. While
Alexander was conquering Persia with his 25-30,000 Macedonians, more
then 50,000 Greeks actually fought on the side of the Persians
against the Macedonians (Curtius). The Macedonians slaughtered
18,000 of them in the first battle and sent 2,000 to forced labor in
Macedonia (Arrian). After Alexander died, the
Macedonian general Pithon massacred 23,000 more of them in a single battle
when the Greeks revolted in Bactria (Diodorus).
In Greece, when the news of Alexander the Great's death became
known, the Greeks united once again and threw out the Macedonians
out of their country in the Lamian War (Diodorus). But the Macedonian army
returned with massive reinforcements, defeated the Greeks both on
land and sea, and re-occupied Greece, putting a bloody end to the Lamian War (Diodorus).
5. The Greeks nevertheless continued raising rebellion after
rebellion against the Macedonians to free Greece from the despised foreign
occupation. All successors of Alexander the Great fought them,
and the Macedonian king Antigonus II Gonatas alone fought three Greek
uprisings against the "barbarous Macedonians" (Diodorus, Plutarch, Justin). Finally
in 197 BC, the Macedonian king Philip V was defeated by the joint
force of Romans and Greeks, and Macedonia lost Greece after almost
150 years of occupation. When the Romans proclaimed that
Greece is free, such an enormous burst of enthusiasm exploded among
the Greeks that the Roman general who made the announcement was
almost killed by the mass of people that flocked to shake his hand
and congratulate him for driving the Macedonians out of Greece (Livy, Polybius).
After the defeat of the Macedonian king Perseus in 168 BC, and the end
of the Macedonian rebellion in 148 BC, Macedonia, Greece, and
Carthage became part of the Roman Empire. In 395 AD with the
split of the Roman Empire, Macedonia and Greece became part of the
East Roman (or Byzantine) Empire.
7. Slavs invaded the whole of
the Balkans in the 6th
century, including Macedonia and the whole of Greece, all the way
down to the Peloponnesus. Byzantine historians clearly mentioned
that the Macedonians did not disappear with the Slavic invasion but
continued to exist. In the 10th century Salonica is
described as the "largest city of the Macedonians" and to
subdue the independent Slavic tribes in the Peloponnesus in Greece,
the Byzantine emperors who were ethnic Macedonians, belonging to the
Macedonian Dynasty, had to sent
"Macedonians and Thracians" against them. Thus the
Macedonians and Slavs have been living side by side ever since the 6th
century. Over a period of centuries these Slavic people mixed into the
Macedonians in Macedonia, and with the Greeks in Greece, and laid
the foundations for the modern Macedonian and Greek nations.
records continue to mention the Macedonians until the fall of the
Byzantine Empire. It must be stressed that there is NO
record of invasion of Greeks into Macedonia.
Turks conquered the Balkans in the 14th century,
including Greece and Macedonia. With the help of the western
powers, the Greeks freed themselves in the 1820's, but the
Macedonians failed to gain freedom with their rebellions in
1870's and in 1903.
Independent European and Balkan statistics
(except exaggerated Greek sources) from the late 19th and
early 20th century show that the Greeks were a small
minority of only 10%, living in the most southern parts of
Macedonia, bordering Greece.
10. In 1913 Greece and her allies Serbia and Bulgaria, with the help of
more then 100,000 Macedonians who fought along these three armies,
finally drove the Turks out of Macedonia, but Macedonia did not gain its
freedom. Instead, the three Balkan countries
Macedonia among themselves and Greece occupied the
largest part, 51% of the whole territory, called Aegean Macedonia.
11. Even Greeks sources, including the
king of Greece himself in 1912, confirm
that when the Greek armies occupied Aegean Macedonia the
overwhelming majority of the population were NOT Greeks, confirming
the fact that the Greeks never lived in Macedonia since the most
ancient times (Nikolaides, Spiros Melas Epopee).
But since 1913 Greece begun aggressive assimilatory policies against the
Macedonians, by changing their family names to Greek names, renaming
the cities, rivers, and mountains with Greek names, and forbidding
the speaking of the Macedonian language.
In the mid 1920's Greeks from Asia Minor begun migrating into Aegean
Macedonia for a first time ever the Macedonians found
themselves among strangers in their native land. These new
Greek settlers from Pontus in northern Turkey most vigorously
attacked everything that represents Macedonian nationality and
consciousness. In the 1930's the Macedonians were forced to
drink castor oil for speaking Macedonian and had to pay financial
penalty for every spoken word of Macedonian.
In 1991 the
of Macedonia, located north of Aegean Macedonia in
Greece, became an independent country. The Republic of
Macedonia was the part of Macedonia that Serbia occupied with the
partition of 1913. In 1945 the Macedonians of the Republic
drove away the fascist Albanian, Bulgarian, and German occupation
forces and voted to join new federal Yugoslavia because it respected
the Macedonian nationality. With the disintegration of Yugoslavia in
1990-1991, the Macedonians voted independence in a
Afraid that now one part of Macedonia is independent, the Greeks
launched a world-wide propaganda against the Macedonians claiming
that "Macedonia has been Greek for 4000 years" (sometimes
they say 3000 years, 2500, etc. It varies.). It is a ironic
twist of events since
the ancient Macedonians committed a real genocide against
the ancient Greeks, the ancestors of today's Greeks.
All despite the fact the
in Greece are oppressed in Greece, and despite the fact
that the Greeks moved into Aegean Macedonia only 75 years ago.
While the Greeks only recently begun to launch the amazing claim that
"they" are descendents of the ancient Macedonians (the people who
murdered their own ancestors), it should be stressed that at least
since the 18th century (DeTott) and including the 19th
and 20th century,
are written records which show that the Macedonians claimed direct
descendent from the ancient Macedonians in their struggle
to free Macedonia from the Turks. That is centuries before Greece
occupied Aegean Macedonia with its army and launched its falsifying propaganda.
Today, as entered the 21st century, the Macedonians of Greece
continue to be harassed and discriminated by the Greek government, a
century since Greece occupied Aegean Macedonia.
The Macedonian language is still not recognized, the Macedonian
nationality is still denied, and the Macedonians are still forced to
have Greek family names since Greece still considers the Macedonian names illegal.
Human Rights Watch (Denying Ethnic Identity -
Macedonians of Greece), Amnesty International, the
European Community, and most recently the United Nations as well, have the Greek oppression of the Macedonians well
documented, found Greece guilty, and demanded that it recognize the
Macedonian language and nation and end the oppression.
The Macedonians continue to exist
in Greece as majority in the northern half of Aegean Macedonia and
as minority in the southern half,
and peacefully continue to demand their human rights. Will Greece
ever became a democracy?
18. The Greeks and the Macedonians greatly defer in physical appearance. The Greeks have typically darker tan then the Macedonians who are fair skinned. Historian Arthur Waigell have stated that the same difference in complexion existed between the ancient Greeks and Macedonians. The ancient Greek historian Plutarch wrote that Alexander the Great had a fair complexion, criticizing a certain ancient Greek sculptor who had given him a darker tan.
19. The fact that both the Greeks and Macedonians have kept their ancient names is proof that both have been aware of, and preserved their lineage since most ancient times.
20. Finally the latest scientific genetic research conducted by the University in Madrid, Spain concluded that the Macedonians are direct descendents of the ancient Macedonians, while the Greeks are unrelated to European origins and to the "older" Mediterranean substratum to which Macedonians belong to.
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